Glossary

APGAR SCORE

The Apgar scoring system is a clinical scoring system which uses the heart rate, respiratory pattern, muscle tone, reaction to external stimuli and colour to assess the wellbeing of a newborn baby.  The maximum score possible is 10 and the minimum is 0.

ATHETOID CEREBRAL PALSY

A type of cerebral palsy characterised by the occurrence of abnormal movements and postures due to a defective coordination of movements and regulation of muscle of tone.

ATHETOID MOVEMENTS

Abnormal writhing movements

AUSCULATION

Listening with a stethoscope

BASAL GANGLIA

Parts of the brain located deep within the brain and involved in the control of movements and posture.

BULBAR MUSCLES

Muscles involved in speech, chewing, swallowing etc.

CENTILE

The term centile is a statistical one. The 50th and 75th centiles simply implies that 50% and 75% of subjects of a given age and sex has measurements less than that given.

DYSMORPHIC FEATURES

Physical characteristics indicating a possible genetic disorder.

EPILEPSY

The tendency to have recurrent epileptic seizures, which are sudden clinical events caused by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain.

GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX

Regurgitation of stomach contents back up the gullet.

HEAD CIRCUMFERENCE

A measurement of the size of the head.

HYPOXIA

Deprivation of oxygen.

HYPOXIC ISCHAEMIC ENCELHOPATHY

The clinical picture in the hours and days following birth seen in newborn babies who have sustained significant intrapartum hypoxia.

INTRAPARTUM HYPOXIA

Deprivation of oxygen during birth.

KERNICTERUS

A condition seen in newborn babies in which severe jaundice causes brain damage.

LIQUOR

The fluid that surrounds the baby in the womb.

MULTI-SYSTEM HYPOXIC DAMAGE

Damage to various systems of the body such as kidneys, gut, liver, heart etc. caused by lack of oxygen.

OESOPHAGITIS

Inflammation of the lining of the gullet.

PERINATAL

Arising around the time of birth.

PHENOBARBARITONE

An anti-epileptic drug.

POSTNATAL

Arising beyond the period immediately after birth.

PRENATAL

Arising prior to the onset of labour.

SCOLIOSIS

A spinal curvature. A postural scoliosis can be corrected by simple manipulation of the spine.  A fixed scoliosis cannot be corrected by such manoeuvres.

SPASTIC QUADRIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY

A type of cerebral palsy characterised by an increase in muscle tone (stiffness) affecting all four limbs.

SYNTOCINON

A drug which stimulates uterine contractions.

TERATROGENS

Agents capable of damaging the developing foetus.